Thursday, December 11, 2008

Inaugration of “Jiwan Darshan’’ & “Abhibyakti”

Two books “Jiwan Darshan’’ and “Abhibyakti” written by Sri Mrinal Kanti Chakrabarty, retired tax officer and presently the Sachiv of "Assam Sahitya Sabha" were inaugurated by the Rtd.Justice of Gauhati High Court Sri Dhiresh Narayan Choudhury.Presiding over the function Sri Kanak Sen Deka, President of Assam Sahitya Sabha spoke high of Sri Chakrabarty as his role to restore financial discipline of the Sabha. Sri Choudhury and the guest of honour Sri Adip Kumar Phukan, Editor of Adinar Sangbad, spoke highly on the multifarious field of Socio- economic scenario of Assam.The programme was high light by the Sanskrit hymn and Bhajan Sung by Dr. Arundhati Chakrabarty, lecturer of Arjya Vidyapith College.Any body willing to buy the books may contact:-
Mrinal Kanti Chakrabortty
“Rudra Bhawan”
R.G.Barua Road
10-LakhimipathGuwahati- 781024,
Please read the Preface of "Jiwan Darshan"

inaugration of “Jiwan Darshan’’ & “Abhibyakti” (left to right) Rtd.Justice of Gauhati High Court Sri Dhiresh Narayan Choudhury, Sri Adip Kumar Phukan, Editor of Adinar Sangbad, Sri Kanak Sen Deka, President of Assam Sahitya Sabha, Sri Mrinal Kanti Chakrabarty(Writer & retired tax officer and presently the Sachiv of "Assam Sahitya Sabha" )

inaugration of “Jiwan Darshan’’ & “Abhibyakti” at Sangitacharyya Laksmi Ram Barua Sadan of Asam Sahitya Sabha (Guwahati),10th Dec'08

Monday, November 17, 2008


Two books in Assamese, namely “Jiwan Darshan” and “Abhibyakti” will be inaugurated on 10th December 2008 at 3 P.M. at the Sangitacharyya Laksmi Ram Barua Sadan of Asam Sahitya Sabha (Guwahati) on the Seventy Second birth anniversary of the writer Shri Mrinal Kanti Chakrabartty.

Tuesday, September 2, 2008


‘Power conferred’ and ‘power exercised’ are the two inherent and indispensable ingredients of administration of law. The power delegation and power exercise scenario are very much there in the Constitution of India (Constitution) and Laws of the land. Without this, the administration will be one man’s or one authority’s game. Our instant discussions mainly confined to the administration of the Value Added Tax Act of Assam (VAT Act), 2005.
The Supreme authority to exercise powers under the VAT Act is the Commissioner of Taxes, Assam (Commissioner). He is assisted by the taxing authorities, namely; the Additional Commissioners of Taxes, Joint Commissioners of Taxes, Deputy Commissioners of Taxes, Assistant Commissioners of Taxes, Superintendents of Taxes and the Inspectors of Taxes, appointed by the State Government, who can exercise the powers of the Commissioner by virtue of such powers delegated to them in accordance with the provisions of the Act subject to the conditions and restrictions, imposed by the rules prescribed by the Act
There has been some departure/ deviation from the main theme of the VAT Act and the power delegation and power exercise episode sometimes become controversial. A discussion will bring out the points of controversy.
(i) Rule 6 of the VAT Rules specified a table providing way and scope for delegation of powers by the Commissioner to the taxing authorities, appointed to assist him. In the said table, the taxing authority, namely; the Assistant Commissioner of Taxes did not figure at all. While delegating powers by the Commissioner, the Assistant Commissioners of Taxes were accommodated in the power exercise scenario, which seems to be direct clash with the provisions of rule 6, as aforesaid. Though this acute irregularity persists since 1st May, 2005, the State Government did not think it proper to make modification of the same during these long three years’ and four months’ period.
(ii) Rule 6 provided that power of scrutiny of returns (Section 33), Provisional assessment (Section 34), Self assessment (Section 35), Audit assessment (Section 36), Best judgment assessment (Section 37), Assessment in case of the un-registered dealers (Section 38), Assessment of turnover escaping assessment (Section 39), Power to re-assessment in certain cases (Section 41) etc. are to be delegated to the Superintendent of Taxes.
(iii) The Superintendent, as defined in VAT Rules means the Superintendent of Taxes appointed by the Government by that designation within whose jurisdiction the dealer’s place of business is situated or if the dealer has more than one place of business, the Superintendent of Taxes in whose jurisdiction, the principal place of business is located or if the dealer has no place of business, the Superintendent of Taxes, who has been so notified by the Commissioner.
(iv) It aptly implies that there should be one Superintendent of Taxes in respect of a dealer in a particular area where his place of business or the principle place of business is situated.
(v) Contrary to this spirit of law, the Commissioner by notifications dated 28th April, 2005 delegated his powers to the taxing authorities before coming into force of the VAT Act, which did not maintain the rational and judicious approaches
(vi) The Commissioner delegated his power of self- assessment (Section 35) to the Superintendent of Taxes of the area and not the other assessment powers.
(vii) The powers of provisional assessment and escaped assessment (section 34 and 40) were delegated to the Superintendents of Taxes, attached to the Commissioner, who it seems were not appointed as a the taxing authority by the Government to make a base in tax administration.
(viii) The power of audit assessment was delegated to the Audit team, constituted by the Commissioner, which in fact, does not have any locus- standi in the VAT Act.
(ix) Thus it is evident that :
(a) the power of provisional assessment, best judgment assessment, escaped assessment, those are being exercised by the unit Superintendents of Taxes seem to be without any delegation of powers
(b) the ‘Audit Team’, though not enunciated in the Act, is nothing but some sorts of investigation wing, while the ‘Audit Assessment’ is quasi-judicial function, which can not be mingled together in view of the doctrine of separation of power, as laid down in Article 50 of the Constitution.
(c) Similarly, the quasi-judicial power conferred to the Superintendents of Taxes, attached to the tax Commissionerate seems to be a matter of controversy,

(x) The Superintendents of Taxes of the area have not been delegated with the
powers of Registration (Section 21, 22,23 etc.) and thus the registration
proceedings, security demand proceedings etc. are being exercised without
any delegation of powers, which are naturally counted as the matter of controversy
(xi) Rule 6 restricted the delegation of power to compound offences to the
Superintendents of Taxes only, but the Commissioner delegated such powers of Compounding of offences to the Additional Commissioner, Joint Commissioner, Deputy and Assistant Commissioners of Taxes, ignoring the restrictions.

. The General Sales Tax Law in Assam came into operative since December 24th, 1947. The power delegation exercise was methodical, rational and judicious. This long tradition had an erosion since the last part of the twentieth century and it took a diametrically opposite turn in the VAT Law in Assam causing some serious set backs and anomalies in the tax administration forum.
The matter s were discussed in a number of times through the media, but was of no avail.

( Mrinal Kanti Chakrabartty)
“Rudra Bhawan”
R.G.Barua Road,10-Lakhimipath


Tax dodging is a burning problem of the day. It has spread like the cancerous tissues affecting adversely the collection of revenue. A serious threat to the state economy is knocking at the door and naturally mass people are anxious for remedial measures.
Of late, the State Tax Commissioner Mr. Sanjay Kumar Lohia spoke before the news media and it aptly made crystal clear that the extent of evasion of tax has gained the momentum in the state whereby doldrums has been created in the state economy. The honest and necked exposures made by him in relation to the evasion of taxes reflected an ugly picture of the functioning of the check posts vis-à-vis the tax administrative machineries of Assam. The mass people of Assam are constrained to hold that the revenue administration has been getting declined. It is undoubtly well established that the base yards of revenue generation Scheme, namely; the border check post at Sreerampur and Boxirhat, the gateways of Assam, could not be mobilized in a planned and systematic manner. The required infrastructure could not be provided and the qualitative skilled manpower is absent very much. Though the ball entirely rests in the court of the State Govt., it mysteriously maintained a cipher attitude to mend the deficiencies and to do way with the persistent lacunae and odds. Since long floods of advice and suggestions were poured to the State Govt. for acceleration and upgrading the functioning of the check posts, but it reached to the deaf ears and amounted to be a far cry in the wilderness. There is no reaction of the people’s demand and thought provoking advice and suggestions.
One will hardly appreciate that 98 percent of the incoming loaded trucks make their safe and extensive ways into the State without being physically intercepted and checked. Naturally, vehicles with under-weight, mis-classified and unaccounted goods use to enter into Assam without any hindrances and take berth in the trade scenario of Assam abstaining from discharging the statutory obligations and liabilities to pay tax on sale of such goods. Naturally tax-dodging episode spread throughout the state by leaps and bound.
The tax commissioner Mr. Lohia asserted that last year tax evasion amounting Rs. 198 crore was detected but he was not conspicuous in the statement about the out turn derived thereon. Whether it was simply a paper work is not known? The Statement that 40 (forty) crore of evaded taxes were realized by seizing goods vehicles in March, 2008 reflected a horrible picture on the functioning of the Check Post through which the goods vehicles entered into the State of Assam. It has, on the other hand, been noticed that due stress is given for detecting evasion of taxes in Guwahati city, while no effort or endeavour is there in detecting other important commercial places of Assam and such vital task is ignored or neglected. The evaders can safely move the goods vehicle through the North Bank of Brahmaputra without any hindrances and thereby indulge evasion of taxes.

In his own words the tax commissioner is fully aware of the prevailing tax dodging activities, but he is non-committal to dislodge or curb the ugly games played by a section unscrupulous traders, which is of dire necessity at this stage. It can be well construed that tax machinery has been kept paralised jeopardizing the revenue generation exercise.

It is well aware that nullification of Entry Tax Act and reduction of central sale tax have been a dominating factor in the matter of short fall in the matter of collection of revenue, but it is not a denial of fact that scope for recoupment of such pecuniary loss is quite existent by way of making a halt of the tax dodging episode.

The introduction of composite tax payment system contrary to the persistent procedure of tax payment on the sale value of goods has been quite detrimental to the VAT regime exercise. The composite tax system on the production of bricks, on the entire value of works Contract, on the import value of marbles go against the Constitutional themes and guidelines. The concept of tax on sale or purchase of goods has been given a good bye. This measure may end in a fiasco if challenged by any aggrieved or disgruntled traders.

The anticipated curbing of tax evasion by way of erecting composite tax check posts at Sreerampur and Boxirhat will be a long course of action. We can dream, but we should not plunge in deep slumber on such designed activity. The best course of action is to be up and doing in the race.

Tax evasion is an economic offence. It is offensive in the social stature as well. If the tax machineries are cautious and conscious to curb evasion of taxes a serious catastrophe on the state economy will be imminent within a short period of time.

(Mrinal Kanti Chakraborty)
Date – 5/04/2008

Rudra Bhawan
R.G. Baruah Road
10 Lakshmipath

Wednesday, August 13, 2008


The Assam Value Added Tax Law (VAT Law) remained in the womb for couple of years and got its birth on the 1st day of May 2005 after the Govt. of India accorded the green signal. The Law, however, did not attain the requisite maturity, as expected and the structure remained crazy and rickety after a good deal of expensive exercise.
VAT is, no doubt, a unique and transparent tax measure having its self steering wheels to achieve the goal, but it has some obvious deficiency and confronted its implementation in a large federal structure of country like India, where there is diversity and disparity amongst the States in the matter of revenue administration. In a State like Assam where, major section traders are illiterate or half-literate, the clock-wise chain of the VAT System always slips away from the main orbit and gets the system topsy-turvy
VAT means a tax on the sale or purchase of any goods at every point in the series of sales made by the registered dealers with provisions of credit of input tax paid at the point of previous purchase thereof. The ‘input tax’ and ‘output tax’ are reckonable ingredients in the VAT exercise. ‘Input Tax’ means amount paid or payable by way of tax under the Act by a purchasing registered dealer to a selling registered dealer on the purchase of goods in the course of business, while ‘Output Tax’ in relation to a registered dealer means a tax charged or chargeable under the Act in respect of the goods sold by that dealer. In a plain meaning, the ‘Input Tax’ and the ‘Output Tax’ are one and the same. For the purchasers, it is termed as ‘input tax’ and for the sellers it is ‘output tax.’
VAT law was enacted by the Legislature of Assam under the authority of Article 246 (3) read with entry 54 of List II (State List) in the Seventh Schedule of the Constitution of India keeping in view the broad based principle that it is a tax on the sale or purchase of goods at every point in the series of sales. A sharp deviation has been maintained in the said Law, where simultaneously the provisions of levy of tax at the point of first sales in Assam has been accommodated without any power or authority incorporated in the Law in this behalf. Fantastically, 23 items including Crude Oil, Petrol, Diesel, Petroleum products etc. were termed as taxable at the first point sale in Assam. The items like tea, biscuits, medicines, liquor, drugs etc, which have the multifarious stages of sales in the trade scenario of Assam, were included in the Schedule of first point sales, making thereby, an unexpected departure from spirit and intention of the VAT theme. While the administration of VAT Law with its Rules is beset with a broad based principle, i.e. a tax on multiple stages of sales, the accommodation of first point tax system created the administrative spheres more clumsy and cumbersome. A careful study and analysis made it transparent that the collection of tax on such first point of sales occupied about 44% of the collection of sales tax in 2005-06 while about 50% in 2006-2007, which apparently shows that the collection of VAT is not up to the mark. It will be fair to place in the record that the growth of VAT revenue in 2006-2007 is Assam was 19.2% in Assam, while it was 22.4% in all India sales tax scenario, which was in no way encouraging or promising. It has further been degraded in 2007-2008 as projected by the media from time to time. The Govt. of India has reviewed the situation and is contemplating to introduce ‘Goods and Services Tax’ in replacement of VAT regime with effect from 1st April 2010. There have been experiments and re experiments on the State Sales tax matters, by the Govt. of India, but the State maintained a cipher attitude and failed to raise their voice of disagreement to safeguard the State revenue interest.
A very unique and unprecedented projection have been exhibited in the VAT Law of Assam by way of empowering the Govt. of Assam to notify the system Composition of Tax (Lump Sum Tax) in lieu of the tax on sales payable by a trader at every point of sale. The principle-adopted contrary to the spirit of VAT in this behalf and the notification issued to levy and realise such composition of tax represented the following:
1. From the retail seller up to the limit of 40 Lakhs of rupees sales in a year irrespective of sales taxable and exempted goods slap wise ignoring the First Schedule of the VAT Law.

2. From the Works Contractors on the full value of Contract works without confining it to the transfer of property in goods, as rigidly occurred in Article 366 (29 A) (b) of the Constitution of India.

3. On the productive capacity of the brick fields without properly adhering to the tax on sales of bricks produced in the brickfield as envisaged in the Schedule II of the VAT Law.
4. On the import of marbles (earlier on potato, onion and garlic also) instead of sales and obviously making direct clash with entry 52 of List II (State List) in the Seventh Schedule of the Constitution of India read with the Assam Entry Tax Act, formulating or providing measures for the levy of such tax or entry on importing goods.

The measure of composition of tax in the VAT regime seems to be an extra-territorial exercise and it amounted to be an slaught on the Constitution and the Law of the land. The Composition of tax providing relief to the traders to adopt the legal formality like submission of returns, production of accounts and other allied obligations always goes to a higher side, but it seems that the measure of tax has been scaled at a much lower side to provide fiscal benefit to the traders for some obvious reasons behind. The traders have, therefore, no reason to grumble or to be aggrieved
We hope, the controversial aspects of the VAT Law, as discussed above will attract attention of the State Govt. and the tax machinery and a constructive approach will be forthcoming for safe guard generation and augmentation of the revenue of the state.

Phone- 2457734
Mobile- 98642-01694
Date – 6/08/2008(Mrinal Kanti Chakrabartty)
‘Rudra Bhawan’
R.G. Baruah Road
10 Lakshmipath